Sparkling or seltzer water is common words for carbonated water. It is basically carbon dioxide impregnated into plain water. This procedure is known as carbonation. This process results in making carbonic acid (H2CO3).
Initially, soda water could be made at home by giving a "charge" , that is adding carbon dioxide to water in a seltzer bottle. Carbonated water is the same as club soda except that club soda may have extra ingredients like salt, sodium bicarbonate, potassium sulphate etc in small quantities.
The head in beer, bubbles in sparkling wine are all effects of the carbonation process.