It can be specifically taught; in the UK, schools run a class called PSHE or PSME, which stands for Personal, Social and Health/Moral Education. It is a tutorial-based class that adds extra life information on things like values and morals, but also decision making and life problems such as relationships, sexual health and general behavior. There is an optional course in college called 'Citizenship' and is more generalised in terms of the working life ahead and the implications in that.
The debate, and argument, comes in the form of the balance of doing such education. People need to be educated into open thinking and fair judgement of situations, as well as to knowing what's best with them, but there is a limit in terms of what is teaching and what is almost brainwashing. For example, liberal-minded people and conservatives clash because they each can't understand the other's viewpoint and they each want the other to be on side. The argument is that if it is institutionalized that children are taught to think one way and not another then that one viewpoint will just become more isolated, despite its opinions perhaps being valid or in fact correct at times.