There are two words for 'mathematics' in Tagalog: 'matematika' and 'sipnayan'.
Sipnayan appears more popular, with 'matematika' perhaps a more formal name for the subject. You could also use 'palatuusan', which means 'arithmetic.'
As a former US colony that still has close ties to the US, a former possession of Spain, and as a nation in its own right, the Philippines has a spread of languages across its hundreds of islands.
More Maths Terms in Tagalog
Here's a list of commonly used math terms in Tagalog. Hopefully this should be enough to get you through an algebra class:
Fraction - Praksiyon
Number - numero
Division - paghahati
Addition - dagdag
Subtract - magbawas
Multiply - magparami
Sum - kabuuan
To learn the basics of maths in Tagalog, it might help to go back to the basics of maths! Try this short film on multiplying in Tagalog and see how you get on: