Planning is a basic managerial function. It involves deciding on a course of action in advance. Planning is deciding what is to be done, where and how the work is to be done and who will do the particular task. We can say plan is to produce schemes for future action, to bring about specified results and specified cost, in a specified period of time. It is a deliberate, extent, speed and effects of change. The following step involving in planning,
It consists in defining the objectives of planning to be made. It also involves defining the problem requiring decision, which means identifying, analyzing and clearing stating the problem for which a plan is to be made.
All necessary background information should be obtained. Certainly all available facts, opinion, data have to be collected.
It consists in identifying gathering and developing the various, possible alternatives must be subjected to searching details.
For making the analysis meaningful, the alternative must be subjected to searching details.
It consists in the testing and evaluation the proposed actions, solutions or decision.
It consists in making selection of the best alternative courses of action, solution or decision.
It consists in putting the plan to specific test designed for its testing in actual practice. The purpose off testing is to evaluate the efficacy, efficiency and festiveness of the solution.
The implementation of the final alternative comprises of the execution of the finally selection and testing solution to the existing problem necessitated it in the given circumstances in the organization at a certain time.
9. FELLOW UP
It consists in obtaining necessary information about implementation work. The manager must make watchful up so as to determine success or other wise, the degree of success or failure and the reasons or it.
It consists in determining necessary changes and makes supplementary plan for adopting the most urgent one there by modifying the decision.
In the planning process, an awareness of opportunities in the external environment as well as within the organization is the starting point of planning. You have to be aware of the market position, competition in the market, needs of customers. In this way you should know about the weakness and the strength of the company. When you have awareness about these opportunities your first step is complete.
In the next step you have to set an objective and goal for the company and for each subordinate work unit. It will be on short and long term, both ranges includes here. You have to take a look that what are the primary objectives and where they have to be placed, and what is to be accomplished by the strategies of polices, procedure, budgets and programs. In the next step you consider the plan premises, which mean that in which environment the plans operate. They are external or internal. Forecasting is important. You have to look what kind of market you want, sales, prices, products, new plants, polices etc.
Now identify the alternatives to look for the most promising alternatives to accomplishing the objectives. Then compare these alternatives in the light of goal. Which alternative will give you the best chance to meet goal at low sot and high profit.Now you have to come the main point to select a plan, to make a decision. Then you have to make plan to buy equipments, materials, hire train workers and develop new products.
At last the budget plan has to be accomplished.